The business models (BMs) provide a solid basis to identify the requirements and assess the viability of an innovative solution (in this case, a C-ITS service or a coherent collection of services). A Service-Dominant Business Model (SDBM) identifies the added value of a given solution to the customer or user, the functions and capabilities required by each participating stakeholder as well as the expected costs and benefits. The SDBM Radar is a tool successfully used to design the business models underlying several mobility solutions. It defines how the actors in the business ecosystem participate in value co-creation and what the cost–benefits distribution is. This section provides a short reference guideline about its use.
Taking into account various stakeholders’ views, 10 business model blueprints that address current or future challenges of urban areas, together with their operating and value-capture scenarios depicting the inner-workings of the business models, and the exchange of costs-benefits among stakeholders, have been validated and assessed for financial viability by the stakeholders involved in the Urban C-ITS Deployments.